This is a fictional simulation of events and the press updates do not reflect the views of the OxIMUN Secretariat

#118 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Dissatisfaction and disenchantment: the order of the day for African States in the IMF

In the span of an hour, I have received multiple statements from different African states exclaiming their dissatisfaction with the way the IMF proceeded with their functioning today.
This is the complete, unedited statement issued by the State of Libya –
“The State of Libya is sorely disappointed in the undiplomatic actions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Libya would have wholeheartedly welcomed a technological sharing partnership with these States as the beginning of a long lasting partnership between the governments of the states. We are therefore distressed that they have chosen to renege on their commitment to provide us with 5 000 000 USD worth of expert knowledge and technological advancements each. This decision shows not only the hypocrisy in their supposed commitment to Vision 2:030, but also their continued support for illegitimate and terrorist actors within Libya. Libya deplores this implicit and continued endorsement of the insurgent General Haftar, which is counter to the official position of the United Nations.”
On the other hand, the delegate of Nigeria said this statement to me: “all surrounding countries are on their own with the fighting terrorism and the great initiative from Nigeria to strike terrorism got rejected because the IMF does not want to spent their financial means on African safety and security” since the IMF rejected the UNSC proposal, with the Nigeria receiving a meagre loan instead of their request for much more, not only for themselves, but for the cause of “fighting terrorism and restructuring economy within the affected countries”.
It is truly disappointing to receive word that on a global platform, there exist bullies, who have the objective of marginalizing the efforts and causes of the globally less recognized – developing African states.
Signing off, your disenchanted reported, Wei Merton

#117 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Turkey carries Humanitarian Burden

Turkey is currently hosting more than 3.6 million refugees in its country, following the refugee deal with the EU. In contrast, the EU has taken back only a little more than 20 thousand refugees from Turkey. Moreover, so far only 4 billion euros of the total 6 billion euros promised by the EU have been provided to Turkey for purposes of facilitating support to refugees hosted domestically, while this 6 billion is only a slight part of the total of 40 billion US dollars invested by Turkey so far in humanitarian aid for refugees in our country. Turkey is carrying the humanitarian burden almost on its own, making it increasingly difficult for the country to provide proper aid and facilities to the refugees while economic sanctions undermine our capacity to keep providing aid. Turkey is currently struggling to keep this heavy burden up, threatening the guarantees of basic human decency to refugees in our country. With a humanitarian crisis in our country therefore lurking, we, therefore, request 10 billion US dollars from the IMF necessary to maintain proper levels of aid. This money would be spent on facilitating humanitarian aid to the refugees in Turkey, specifically to offer them education, health care and housing on top of assuring the basic standards of human dignity. Help from the IMF is paramount and urgent. Without financial support, Turkey is simply not capable of sustaining the refugee deal, potentially leaving the country no other choice but to lift the deal, which would imply that the situation of millions of refugees would deteriorate rapidly. This should be prevented by all means.

#116 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Russia gets exclusive rights to Nigerian oil

The Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Russian Federation have decided on the following bilateral agreement.
A) The Russian Federation will invest strongly improve the energy access in
Nigeria, in particular by the use of sustainable energy sources. Profits
from these energy sources will go for 75% to Russia and for 25% to
Nigeria. In addition, Russia has full power over regulating these energy
sources under strict supervision of the Nigerian government;
B ) In return, the Russian Federation will be given access to Nigerian oil up
to a maximum of 15% of the total oil production, to be sold under
the current oil price

#115 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Shocking Screenshot Proves Corruption at “The New Union”

The conversation where a delegate dictates an article to a corrupt journalist

#114 THE NEW UNION: American Money Behind Venezuelan Terrorism

According to sources whose authenticity were verified by The New Union, the United States of America has provided Israel with the funds to support terrorists in Venezuela. This is reminiscent of the Iran-Contra Affair in the 1980s, where a similar system was used to unofficially prop up terrorist groups. This revelation casts a dark shadow on the work of the Security Council and shows that Israel is once more a mere puppet in the US’ pursuit of oil.
– Nadya Nikolayevna


African nations behind the APPA initiative have chosen to welcome a significant financial contribution of $50 billion from the People’s Republic of China.  The People’s Republic of China, as a continued supporter of African development, wishes to play a key role in ensuring African energy independence.
The $50 billion will be used by the APPA participating countries to make use of Chinese infrastructure, management practices, labor and technology sharing in order to upgrade their petroleum infrastructure to meet the targets set by the APPA.
In return for this investment, Chinese drilling companies will gain beneficial drilling and exportation opportunities to further strengthen the PRC in assisting APPA countries. In addition, the PRC will continue to closely assist countries blighted by terrorist activities through the provision of equipment, best practice information and any additional help.
– Shen Lingxen

#112 THE NEW UNION Attempting to thwart “bad press”? FAKE NEWS is the way to go. Things not going the way you want? CENSOR the press.

Yes, dear readers, you read it right. The United States has once again shown their petty side by (1) attempting to throw shade on any news agency that calls them out on their bullshit and (2) by going against their very own FIRST AMENDMENT that they love defending so much by attempting to censor the press by motioning to expel them from the IMF.
The operative word is “attempt”. Yes, dear readers, you read it right. I am still investigating the concerning global actions of supranational agencies, of international superpowers and of individual influential people. It seems to me that there is something brewing in the backroom.
Recently, Andrew Turner, reporter to the International Standard has raised the question of the legitimacy of the press. I did some digging, and here is some context for you, my loyal readers.
Andrew Turner is a privileged, white American who has grown up believing that America’s position lies at the head of the liberal world. Today, this very question of American hegemony was called into question, not only by our very own newspaper – by elucidating the stalemate between the Russian Federation and the United States of America, but also by the International Standard when Wei Merton realized the complete statement issued by the delegate of United States to the IMF.
Much like during the time of the Cold War, the two superpowers were at odds. I did the honourable thing as dictated by my journalistic responsibility and moral duty – I told the complete, unbiased truth juxtaposed with my own personal views. Who wants dry news? You can read the original reports for that.
In the last couple of years, the United States’ role as a world arbitrator is being questioned. In this context, American, as well as liberal journalists, are using the Russian Federation as their scapegoat since its always been portrayed as being the socialist, corrupt State – much of which is owing to its Soviet past.
What many press agencies do not tell you is that statistically, the Russian Federation is one of the countries with the greatest number of anti-corruption laws and efforts. The United States, on the other hand, has faced scandals after scandals, despite being considered one of the largest liberal democracies.
The question is not about favoring the Russian Federation. The problem is that the news is against the United States of America. These “attempts” by the United States of America are simply their futile attempts at gaining some legitimacy in the context of loss of authority. So, if some “good” press for countries who are actually making meaningful contributions to settling the world order is truly so bad, then my  beloved readers, I am in the wrong.
But I think the question you all need to ask yourselves is whether you want to live with the knowledge that you have the truth, or in a world where the news looks favourably towards the West.
I am looking forward to providing you all with more insightful information on everything that is at stake here.
Your RELIABLE source, Olívia Moreira Fontes

#111 THE NEW UNION: Security Council Adopts Resolution on Kurdish Question, in the Meantime Venezuela Burns

While the Security Council is once more pre-occupied with discussing small details of resolutions and presidential statements, it completely ignores the developments happening in Venezuela at the moment. This is typical for this West-centered, imperialist organization. Rather than helping a nation in need and criticizing the “state” apparently responsible for it, Israel, the UN spends its time redrawing the maps of the Middle East, a practice which led to the mess there in the first place. When will the Security Council finally do its job and take on the real, urging issues?
I, for my part, wouldn’t be surprised if the answer was “never”.
– Shen Lingxen

#110 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: International Oil Prices Drop

The policies passed by the Russian government led to a drop in international oil prices. The opening up of the country to FDI, however, does not suffice to cover the gaps created by the tax cuts, as investors are wary of investing in the Russian economy, in light of the instability of the ruble. Standard and Poor’s downgrades Russia to from BBB to BBB-.

#109 The NEW UNION: Ecuadorian Events

Ecuador, having moved it’s Eastern Navy to the Strait of Hormuz in order to protect its assets in the Strait has left itself open to an attack, and this opportunity has been snapped up like a buffet in a homeless shelter. 3 oil refineries have been occupied in Ecuador, with threats being sent to the government saying:  ‘we have placed explosives in all of your facilities, and we will not let our cause go unless OPEC decreases global oil prices’. Their actions, however, have caused oil prices to skyrocket in the region due to a shortage of supply. Middle Eastern actors are suspected are to have been behind it due to Ecuador’s emergence as a threat to their hegemony. The west will likely sit by and do nothing while Africa is prayed upon.
– Nadya Nikolayevna


The People’s Republic of China has signed a contract with Equatorial Guinea to obtain exclusive drilling rights to the Okume oil field in return for $3 billion, which will be invested in the development and renewal of ports at Malabo and Bata. Okume’s oil production reached a peak of 81,000 barrels per day in 2010, which amounts to around 8% of China’s daily imports. China and Equatorial Guinea have also agreed to pursue investigation of further, potential oil fields in the country and to share the returns. As a result, the IMF has upgraded Equatorial Guinea’s credit rating from BBB to BBB+ and its budget is increased by $3 billion to a total of $6 billion. Other major trading partners, like India, South Korea and the US will be barred from any drilling projects in Okume or other Sino-contracted oil fields in the future.

#107 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: US-Saudi Arms Deal Divides America

The sale of $20 billion of arms to Saudi Arabia has enraged Democrats in the House and Senate. Democratic presidential candidates have united in condemning the ‘funding of Saudi attacks on Yemen’ despite the passage of three resolutions in the Senate in 2017 to block a similar $8 billion deal. Republicans, on the other hand, have stressed the importance of the US’ strategic relationship with Saudi Arabia, which has been able to ramp up its bombing of Houthi rebels as a result of this deal.

#106 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Russia retaliates to African Backstabbing

The Russian Federation is deeply disappointed by the back-stabbing acts of the African countries. In retaliation, Russia is lowing the taxes on their national petroleum industries and opening the crude oil sector to FDI to secure cashflow and liquidity. To compensate for the effect of these actions on government revenue, drilling for oil in the Arctic and Siberia will commence shortly. “The Russian Federation issues a warning to all OPEC members – should we not immediately recieved a formal apology and should such insulting actions happen again, we will see ourselves forced to stop cut prices and heavily increase production.”

#105 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: UNSC passes directive on Nigeria IMF Loan

The Security Council has passed a directive sponsored by Angola, Belgium, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Iran, and Nigeria advising the IMF to approve the increase of funding to nations affected by Bolo Haram. This justifies an increase in the loans from the current 2.5 billion to 6 billion utilised for the protection of oilfields.

#104 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Breaking News! Massive Update! Israel Funding Terrorism in Venezuela

A source has told the International Standard that evidence has emerged indicating Israel in the recent attempted bombing of the oil refineries in Venezuela. How long has Israel been supporting terrorism? Has the ‘guiding light’ of the Middle East started showing its true darkness on the international stage? Will the international community undertake concrete action against Israel for the first time in UN History?
Make sure to subscribe to the International Standard, your most reliable news source, to follow this story!
Elizabeth O’Sullivan, signing off


My dear readers of the only reliable source of truth, “The Intercontinental Standard”, I am sure you are not surprised by this news, as neither am I. Apparently, as an anonymous delegate in the IMF has told me, the reporter Olivia Moreira Fontes from “The New Union” has struck a deal with the Russian delegate to the IMF, to report favourably about the Russian Federation. This is a scandal, even for this joke of a newspaper. If you needed any more proof to be sure, whether “The New Union” could be trusted or not, here you go. Not only did they betray the ethics of journalism, but they also undermined the entire press’ reputation in this time of unrest through their reckless actions. I call for a criminal investigation of “The New Union”’s doings and urge all delegates in all committees to no longer communicate with reporters from this corrupt “newspaper”. – Andrew Turner, reporting for the Intercontinental Standard

#102 THE NEW UNION: Security Council Adopts Statement on Nigeria’s Request from IMF

After just a couple of minutes of debate on the topic, the lobbying work of the African countries, especially Nigeria, seems to have proven fruitful, as the Security Council adopted a statement supporting Nigeria’s request for 2.5$ billion from the IMF. Even though the US, China and Russia abstained, with the Russian delegate even mistakenly stating that his country believes “terrorism must be financed”, before correcting himself amidst amused reactions from his colleagues, the Security Council wholeheartedly promotes the efforts of the West African nations. This is a huge step in the direction of international support for Africa, something China has already been doing for the last two decades.
– Shen Lingxen,


An attempted bombing of a Venezuelan Oil Refinery has been prevented by a group of badass warrior women. The international community is shocked by the sudden increase of rebel activity in Venezuela but is pleased to see the women of Venezuela standing up and fighting for their country. While we hope the Government of Venezuela can staunch this rebellion with the help of its allies, it is always refreshing to see women being empowered in South America. The Intercontinental Standard has one thing to say to this group of warrior women. You go girls!
Elizabeth O’Sullivan, signing off.

#100 THE MUN – An OPEC Competition

by Alex Jones, correspondent for freedom at The MUN:
Members of the press have been jeering about which elements within OPEC are the most corrupt, the most self serving or who supports the most terrorism within the Middle East and Africa?
Fundamentally, we probably won’t ever know, because OPEC nations and the committee itself has a tendency to evict the press. There is no USA in the committee, so there is no press freedom.
(Views xpressed in this article do not reflect the opinion of The Mun and any complaints about Alex Jones or more items of juicy gossip are welcome ^-^)

#99 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: A Cover-Up in the Making?

The deposits of oil in the Florida everglades which were “supposedly” discovered earlier, have been “confirmed”. In an exclusive interview with the United States, the honourable delegate issued the following statement –
“After a preliminary scanning and excavation, we have found a large oil deposit within the Florida everglades. Seeing the potential with this large source of energy and wanting to create many jobs within the region of Florida, The United States of America have decided to exploit this area. On top of that, we are making ourselves less oil-dependent on countries that allegedly engage in state-sponsored terrorism. What the US is doing with this investment is fulfilling President Trump’s promise: making America great again by taking back industry to our own country, by creating jobs for those who need it most and by curbing state-sponsored terrorism.”
The question that I have is whether this was simply the serendipitous uncovering of “deposits” or the unfortunate discovery of “reserves”? With the policy of primacy of “national interests”, President Trump’s strong statements of “rejection of globalism and emphasis on patriotism”, all of the US’s recent activities, deals and decisions must be scrutinized.
What has the state of the world come to that once a forerunner of international liberalism is now the perfect example of nationalism?
Keep tuned for more. Off for now, Wei Merton.

#98 THE NEW UNION: IMF the new ICC? Anti-African Bias?

Certain African countries are concerned about the IMF’s unwillingness to even open the debate on Angola’s request for financial support from the IMF. Why is the conversation being controlled by the Middle Eastern initiatives? Why is such a pertinent and important conversation being completely shut down
Waiting to provide you more insider scoops, Olívia Moreira Fontes.

#97 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Gabon extended credit facility of 200 million USD approved by IMF

The Gabonese Republic has a strong relationship with the IMF and has benefited from funding to redevelop ITS economy. However, the instability of the fossil fuel sector still threatens the people of Gabon. The Republique Gabonaise has been provided with a concessional loan of 200 million USD, to be repaid at the rate of interest of 5.0% over a period of 5 years. The rate proposed is lower than the initial loan at a rate of 6.95% due to the proven reliability of Gabon during the first 3 years of the fund.

#96 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Saudi Arabia buys US Weapons while USA cuts all oil trade with Iran

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and the United States of America have agreed to the following trade deal as a reaction onto the Yemen/Saudi Crisis:

The United States will receive 20bn$ by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in order to receive the following arms: drones, rifles and thermal weapons. These weapons will be used to protect Saudi Arabian oil fields and facilities. Furthermore, the United States has agreed to cut all ties with the Islamic Republik Iran in terms of oil trade. These effects are instated immediately. All nations stand united against the threats of terrorism.

#95 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Kuwait Halts Iraqi Gas Imports

Kuwait halts gas imports from Iraq following Saudi and Russian support.

#94 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Saudi Arabia, Russia Pledge Support to Kuwait

Kuwait announces it has struck a deal with Saudi Arabia and Russia to increase gas exports through maritime ways until further notice. Kuwait is confident this will stabilise to gas price and restore civil order domestically. Saudi Arabia and Kuwait are committed to increasing their energy partnerships and seeks to start the evaluation of a pipeline project between the two nations. Russia is very concerned by the situation in Kuwait and is planning to increase gas exports through oil tankers. This short-term provisioning is aimed to temper the unstable context of oil price variations affecting both nations and causing a drop in Russian exportations.

#93 THE NEW UNION: Emir of the State of Kuwait Cuts Ties with Qatar and Iraq

The delegate of Kuwait has contacted me with an official statement from Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, the Emir of Kuwait, saying that the state has “received gracious help from Saudi Arabia and Russia and therefore does not need to work with Qatar or Iraq anymore.” This ought to have a heavy economic impact on those countries. They might have to rethink their stance towards Kuwait…
– Shen Lingxen

#92 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Exclusive OPEC Statement Publication

Iran has provided the International Standard with a statement it wishes to publish for the entirety of OPEC. The announcement is: “The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries has observed with care and sometimes concern the rapid developments of the past few days in military, economic and political landscapes.
OPEC wishes to re-iterate that the future of global petroleum policies are being debated extensively and the organisation is working hard towards a unanimous resolution, beneficial to all States. The challenges of managing the oil market’s reaction are the very essence of OPEC’s mandate and as such debate is proving productive and relevant.”
A show of unity amongst the current discord, most certainly. Subscribe to the international standard for more breaking news!
– Elizabeth O’Sullivan

#91 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Security Council Heats up While Discussing IMF Proposal

There has been a lot of screaming and shouting in the Security Council ever since the IMF asked the body to discuss a proposal by Nigeria, who wants 2.5$ billion from the IMF to combat terrorism and boost the economy in West Africa. Russia’s opening statement on the issue, urging its fellow nations in the SC to position themselves against the proposal, seemed to enrage the delegate of Nigeria. He followed it up with a passionate and quite aggressive speech, accusing the Russian representative of the hypocrisy for supporting Nigeria’s efforts in the IMF yesterday. The delegate from Angola even took it further than that, accusing the West of ignoring Africa and then ironically referencing Donald Trump in her final point, asking the world to help “Make Africa Great Again!”. At this point, I honestly don’t know what is going on, but I will try to keep you folks posted!
– Andrew Turner, reporting for The Intercontinental Standard

#90 THE NEW UNION: Have the tables turned? Is this an attempt at powerplay between Russia and the USA?

In the last hour, the world has seen back-to-back statements by some of the global superpowers. There seems to be a quest for dominance and of power between the United States and the Russian Federation, with each making contradictory statements of support towards opponents of an on-going dispute. Is this discussion still in the interests of resolving the conflict between Kuwait and Iraq, or has this whole situation been instrumentalized by these two long-standing global opponents to further their national interests? So many questions, so few answers. One thing is certain for sure, this reporter is definitely going to unleash her inner detection and promises to get to the bottom of this situation.
With promises to keep you, my beloved reader, appraised, signing off for now, Olívia Moreira Fontes.

#89 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Saudi Arabia, UAE Withdraw Support to Libya

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have decided to withdraw from the technology-sharing deal (see #82 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE)

#88 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: OPEC to Unite Their Militaries?????

OPEC is once again making huge changes to its functionality and remit by actually discussing the unification of all of their military drills and such in a revolutionary development and show of unity in the Middle East. The amendment in question was promptly rejected by the Committee, but the sheer entertainment of this amendment is either laughable or terrifying.
Elizabeth O’Sullivan

#87 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Iraq’s staunch ally: A press statement by the United States of America, a world arbitrator

In a press statement released by The United States of America, it “calls for the postponement of the payment of war reparations demanded by the State of Kuwait”. They go on to state that “this current and sudden demand of reparations have threatened the global economy and stability within the region” They worry that “oil prices have surged, border frictions are heating up” and now “a conflict seems inevitable”.The USA calls for “a peaceful solution so that our efforts may be focused on creating peace in the region” and “invites both parties to come towards a peaceful solution in the region through multilateral talks where the United States would be delighted to coordinate talks between both nations”. This turn of events is truly a surprising one, but definitely a move in the right direction. Why escalate situations when the diplomatic path has still not been exhausted? With things heating up, be sure to follow me along as this sticky situation is cleaned up.
Once again, your trusted source Wei Merton.

#86 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: US move its troops closer

Kurdish Regional Government of Iraq US troops at the Iraqi-Iranian border split some of their forces and head towards the disputed oil fields bordering the Kurdish Governmental Region. This Iraqi central government responded happily too as it allowed them to focus their fighting the remaining ISIS insurgents, however, will not move any troops.

#85 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Kuwait’s plea for help, Russia’s sudden interest in providing aid, the role of Saudi Arabia in all of this and more …

In a statement released by the State of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Russia, they express their concern towards “Iraq’s reduction in gas exports to Kuwait and remains committed on receiving the war reparations from Iraq following on Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait”. It goes on the announce that Kuwait has now “struck a deal with Saudi Arabia and Russia to increase gas exports through maritime ways until further notice”. Kuwait states that it “is confident this will stabilize the gas price and restore civil order domestically”, especially given their and Saudi Arabia’s joint commitment “on increasing their energy partnerships and seeks to start the evaluation of a pipeline project between the two nations”.Furthermore, “Russia is very concerned by the Kuwait situation and is planning to increase gas exports through oil tankers. This short-term provisioning is aimed to temper the unstable context of oil price variations affecting both nations and causing a drop in Russian exportations.”Follow along to discuss the repercussions of such a deal, the question of who the actual benefactor is and more.
Wei Merton, your most reliable source on all things relevant.

#84 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: US finds oil in Florida’s everglades

After investing in oil research in Florida’s everglades US has found a finite resource of 1.5 billion barrels of oil. This is a finite amount which equates to 42% of one year’s worth of US imports in oil.

#83 THE NEW UNION: Russian Federation, a good Samaritan who saved the day

The APPA countries have issued a statement condemning the lack of support, absence of funding and pointless “unrest caused by the fund asked for by the IMF”. According to the statement, “they feel sorry that this has caused this unrest, as there is no trade deal with Europe in the official text as released.”However, these countries – Angola, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria – publicly praise the Russian Federation for supporting “the initiative in the IMF on October 26, 2019”, and for looking “favourably upon strengthening the African economies by boosting both their petroleum supply and global petroleum demand”. They end their statement with a look into the future, wishing for a positive working relationship with “the OPEC and other member countries” in an effort “to stabilize the petroleum market”. This statement was definitely a surprising one, with the start of an unorthodox alliance, but this reporter looks forward to seeing how things play out! Olívia Moreira Fontes reporting live from the IMF, stay tuned for more…

#82 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Saudi Arabia, UAE pledge support to Libya

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, The State of Libya and the United Arab Emirates have agreed on a technology sharing deal. Recognizing the vital need for long lasting peace, stability and prosperity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have agreed on tinvesting 5 000 000 each in Libyan technology. The countries have agreed on providing Libya with experts and technological advancements within the Vision 2030 for a period of 5 years.

#81 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Libya and the Republic of Turkey agree on an arms deal

Recognizing the vital need for the UN-backed Government of National Accord in Libya to defend itself against the illegitimate insurgency of General Hafter, these countries have agreed on a sale of weapons. The State of Libya has agreed to purchase 1 000 000 USD worth of armaments from the Republic of Turkey, who has agreed to provide them at this price.

#80 THE NEW UNION: Iran Responds to US and Saudi Arabia Lifting Sanctions

In an exclusive interview with the Iranian delegate in the UN Security Council, she said that Iran was pleased to see the sanctions that had unrightfully been imposed by both Saudi Arabia and the USA had been lifted after multilateral talks between the parties involved. In a feisty manner she suggested to her fellow representatives “to read the news with a critical mind and refrain from believing all updates that are  published, as this can lead to unnecessary tensions between nations and threaten peace and security” in the future.
As one can tell, Iran is not one to run away from a challenge. Maybe next time, the US should think twice about its actions. But I guess we shouldn’t be surprised, given that the American president doesn’t even review his tweets before posting them.
– Shen Lingxen


Tensions in the Middle East have risen since Kuwait called in Iraq’s debt of 4.6 billion USD. The escalation of the situation has prompted countries such as the USA and Saudi Arabia have taken active steps to prevent conflict. However, the increase in the risk of oil supply has increased the price of oil to roughly $100 per barrel. As a result, both Kuwait and Iraq have made major gains which makes the war reparation debt seem insignificant. This makes the author believe that the debt was only called in to increase the price of oil as Kuwait does not really need the amount to be paid for a few more years at least. It was a sneaky tactic used.

#78 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: “Uncertainties Remain, the Challenge Gets Harder” … OPEC’s Charter of Cooperation Says It All

A highly credible, highly-regarded member of the International oil community just anonymously disclosed that massive deposits of oil have been uncovered in the Florida everglades. The risks that such a discovery poses to the oil market are immense, with the capacity of completely rendering pointless the headways that the OPEC has made over this sitting of their committee… The world is waiting to see how this committee deals with this potentially disastrous discovery. This is could be a calamity of massive proportions, altering the oil market beyond recognition.
– Wei Merton

#77 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Kuwait Gas Prices Drastically Increase leading to Public Unrest

The decrease in Gas exports from Iraq to Kuwait has put significant strain on the relations between the two countries. Kuwaits gas reserves are close to exhaustion and the government is forced to let prices shoot up by 30%. This leads to uproar in the population of Kuwait and disquiet within the royal family. There is no direct impact on the budget of Kuwait, but the protests by the population could send fractures through the Kuwaiti economy.

#76 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: African Oil dominance in Europe severely threatens Russian exports, RUSSIAN OIL COMPANIES’ SHARE PRICE PLUMMETS

Russia has highly felt the impact of a new African oil dominance which has led its oil exports in the European continent to dramatically decrease the Russian budget is now 262.2 billion USD (dropping by 18.8 billion USD )
Lukoil Russian multinational energy corporation, and the second-largest company of Russia by revenue ($93.85 billion USD) comprising almost 20% of Russia oil production saw its export share in Europe DROP by 23% plummeting its share price from 95.57 to 80 USD

Similarly, Gazprom Neft’s share price has plummeted to the lowest amount in the past three years dropped from 32.75 to 22.93 USD

#75 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: France and Belgium Scrap Fuel Subsidies

France and Belgium have jointly agreed to eliminate all fossil fuel subsidies in the upcoming 2 years and welcome any other countries to join them.

#74 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Important note on available Financial Funds

Dear Delegates of Advanced Committees,

For live updates on country budgets, please check this link as often as possible:

Also, please be informed of the following remaining balances:

a. Committee projects, multilateral projects, or delegation projects (fund size: 150 billion US Dollars) – 126.24 billion US Dollars

b. Extreme urgency and distress funds (fund size: 100 billion US Dollars) – 100 billion US Dollars

c. Classic IMF loan facilities (fund size: 100 billion US Dollars) – 86.81 billion US Dollars2

#73 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Hugely Expansive APPA Deal by African Countries bolsters African Oil Dominance

FUNDING POOL ON OIL REVENUES BETWEEN CONCERNED AFRICAN STATES: This shared funding pool is established to expand new oil fields in west-sub Saharan Africa, in order to enhance the power of APPA as an oil-exporting bloc. The current pipeline network will expand from North and West Africa to the rest of the content

Introduced by the delegations of Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Angola, Algeria, Libya and Cote d’Ivoire

$560 million has been provided by the IMF in order to that set the funding pool into action, as well as a further $3.2 billion in order to invest in the development and research of new and existing oil-fields.

Full Text:

#72 OFFICIAL UPDATE: USA Mobilizes Troops in the Iraq/Iran Border

The United States is moving troops towards the Iraq/Iran border after the embargo was lifted. This is done as a domestic American directive at the request of the Iraqi government after rebel attacks in Saudi Arabia.

#71 THE NEW UNION: IMF Hyprocisy Emerges

The IMF, having stated its aims of economical diversification and development, is in a heated debate regarding a clause of a resolution that invests millions of IMF dollars into the development of oil industries. Is this the decline of OPEC inaction or is there greater collusion going on here? Are they simply trying to bolster their own dying industries? The IMF intends to rubber-stamp a proposal that is in total contravention to everything this committee has committed itself to achieve. Yet another promise broken.
– Nadya Nikolayevna

#70 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Energy Ministers Call for Collaboration

The energy Ministers of Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Ecuador, United Arab Emirates, Gabon, Venezuela, and the Russian Federation recommend to their military ministers more collaboration on the fronts of intelligence sharing, logistical assistance, response procedures, and training exercises. In addition to exploring the possibility for the installation of anti-aircraft land to air missiles to protect oil production facilities.

#69 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Russia talks about sovereignty – is this the upside-down?

While the UN Security Council was discussing amendments to the draft resolutions on the Kurdish question, Russia hilariously gave a passionate speech stressing the importance of sovereignty. I am sorry, but do we need to remind the Honorable Delegate of Crimea? Or maybe Georgia? This has to be a joke! Maybe, Putin should first look up the definition of sovereignty, before defending it.
– Andrew Turner, reporting for the Intercontinental Standard.

#68 OFFICIAL UPDATE: US and Saudi Lift Iran Embargo

Both the United States of America and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have lifted the embargo on the Islamic Republic of Iran following the WTO expressed grave concern due to the lack of an extensive and objective assessment of the facts regarding the Houthi attacks. “This is done in huge anger and frustration and the Kingdom will consider consequences” declared the delegate of Saudi Arabia in UNSC.

#67 THE NEW UNION: Security Council Votes on Directive, Us Strikes It down

Finally, he SC took on the issue of the US-Saudi trade embargo on Iran, voting on a directive criticizing both parties to the conflict, however (rightfully) more heavily the United States. That was apparently enough for the former superpower to veto the proposal, thereby once again leaving the body without a response regarding the developing crisis. This embarrassing, spineless behaviour fits into the pattern the US has been following ever since the creation of the United Nations: it is fine to criticize other nations and impose sanctions on them, but as soon as someone even so much as mentions the States in a negative manner, their proposal is oppressively discarded. This once more goes to show that America is no more, if they ever were, the leader of the free world, but instead just wants to force its way of life on every other nation in the world. In the words of their president: Sad.
– Shen Lingxen

#66 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Member States Condem US and Saudi Embargo

Belgium, Cote d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Germany, and South Africa have issued a statement condemning the action by the United States of America and Saudi Arabia in setting up an embargo on the Islamic Republic of Iran. Also, suggesting that Saudi Arabia should increase security at their oil fields, in order to reduce any future instances of attacks on their oil fields by Houthi rebels. And urges Iran not to involve themselves in any activities with the Houthi rebels to increase changes of the embargo being lifted.

#65 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: How Will the Security Council Respond to the Looming Lawsuit by Iran?

After reconvening, the Security Council was informed by a representative of the WTO of the lawsuit brought in by Iran against the US-Saudi trade embargo. The question now is: how will the body react to this development? Will it fold and give in to the threats of an inhumane, undemocratic and warmongering Islamic “Republic” and criticize the US for its rightful use of sanctions? Or will it show some backbone and not be toyed with by a rogue nation? I will keep you posted!
–    Andrew Turner, reporting for the Intercontinental Standard

#64 THE NEW UNION: Oil Shadow Wars in the Middle East?

Disturbing news tonight dear readers as we have received numerous confirmed reports that Qatar, Iraq, Syria and Turkey are conspiring to redraw the map of the Middle East’s oil infrastructure to avoid Saudi Arabia. This coalition of unlikely allies is a further nail in Saudi’s hegemony over the region with it posing a serious threat to the power of Saudi Arabia to control OPEC and for OPEC indeed to even achieve anything of note. With more and more oil deals being discussed and decided outside of OPEC one is left to wonder if this archaic institution has any purpose in the modern world?
– Mohammed Abbas Salim

#63 THE NEW UNION: UN Not Interested in Peace?

While the delegates in the Security Council have been taking a coffee break for the last 45 minutes, the world hasn’t. There have been a lot of new developments, the biggest one being the video leaked by a Saudi Arabian high-level official, apparently proving Iran’s complicity in the Houthi rebel attack on Saudi oil fields. How will the council respond to this breaking news? Oh right, I forgot: they are too busy relaxing and socializing. Maybe they should get back to doing their job. So much for an “emergency session”…
– Shen Lingxen

#62 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Saudi Arabia Protects Its Borders to Protect Escalating Kuwait Conflict

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia directs an array of tanks, field force and 3 drones 50km to the triangle boarder between Kuwait, Iraq and Saudi Arabia until further notice in order to assure safe measures are taken following the escalation of the Kuwaiti-Iraqi conflict.

#61 OFFICIAL UPDATE: UAE Supports Venezuelan Energy Infrastructure

UAE will invest 20 billion USD in renewable energy, drilling capacity and refineries in Venezuela to keep the country afloat and prepare it for the future by diversifying the Venezuelan economy.

#60 OFFICIAL SIMULATION UPDATE: Saudi Arabia and UAE set up intranational University

In the spirit of the EXPO 2020 in Dubai, Saudi Arabia and the UAE are proposing the development of a new university near the city of the future Masdar, on international ground. This university shall carry the mission and vision of a clean and sustainable energy future. The university shall consist of research pavilions created by the nations participating in the program. The research deliverables shall be shared into a database available to all countries that have shared and art part of the university. Furthermore, students of all participating nations shall be able to work and study in the pavilions of other nations to further international cooperation on this matter. Nations will have to undergo an application procedure to make sure they will contribute substantially and not just live of the success of the R&D by other nations.

#59 THE NEW UNION: Fake Videos, Even Faker News

Iran has assured the New Union that they have no involvement with the Houthi rebels and are investigating the potential of this being a false flag campaign designed to smear the reputation of Iran. It is rather convenient that this evidence came to light as Iran once again attempted to garner a loan from the IMF, almost as if this is sabotage. This looks like the CIA forging evidence to benefit the USA once again. The New Union is the only truth, dear readers. The Intercontinental Standard is complicit in their lies.
– Nadya Nikolayevna


In line with Article #50, the debate has turned sour within the IMF, but Algeria is for some reason under the impression that they should still be provided with funding to grow their power sector. “Maybe they are terrorists, maybe they aren’t, it shouldn’t affect this deal anyway” Is it Algeria’s foreign policy to give money to States who have had IRREFUTABLE video evidence of involvement of state-sponsored terrorism? Should an investigation into Algerian ties into the Houthi terrorists be opened as a result of this?
This and more coming soon to the Intercontinental Standard.
– Elizabeth O’Sullivan, signing off.

#57 THE NEW UNION: Division in Arabia?

Shocking news tonight as the New Union has received a copy of a secret shared intelligence gathering/sharing program operating between the United Arab Emirates and Israel. This defiant act by Abu Dhabi is a clear slap in the face of their long-time ally Saudi Arabia and many commentators have remarked that it may be the first sign of the Saudi alliance chain collapsing as a result of their recent economic and domestic woes. What lies in store for Saudi Arabia? Will they continue to fracture and fall? What will UAE’s neighbours think of their intimate secretive military ties to the long-time enemy of many middle eastern countries? Only time will tell, but we’ll be sure to keep you updated here at The New Union!
– Mohammed Abbas Salim

#56 THE MUN: Wholesome (?)

A submission has been received and approved by one of our readers.
“My chair called herself ‘Wholesome.’ I can’t decide if she’s complimenting herself, insulting herself or saying she’s part of some society or something. WHY IS ENGLISH SO CONFUSING”
All we can say is we feel you, dear reader. English is dumb.
– Elizabeth Warren

#55 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: US Once Again Wrongfully Accused of Economic Terrorism

This is getting ridiculous. Instead of the United Nations Security Council focusing on the attacks of the Houthi rebels on the Saudi oil fields, which Iran is most likely responsible for, as multiple sources have suggested, countless countries choose this point in time to instead attack the US for being the only voice of reason in this body. The delegations from Russia, Nigeria and Venezuela accused the US of economic terrorism, completely ignoring Iran’s perpetration of actual terrorism! How the delegate from the United States puts up with this nonsense, I don’t know. Maybe it is time to consider cutting down financial contributions to the UN, as President Trump has suggested multiple times…
Andrew Turner, reporting for the Intercontinental Standard.

#54 THE NEW UNION: Iran Fears for Its Oil

Sources within Iran have leaked information regarding movements of Iraq towards the Iranian Border and are moving to close the Strait of Hormuz in order to protect themselves. Are Iraq, Saudi and USA moving to invade Iran? Will the ‘World Police’ once again violate international law? We will keep you posted.
– Nadya Nikolayevna

#53 OFFICIAL UPDATE: OPEC Welcomes Mexico as a new Member

The United Mexican States has been adopted as a full member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) through a unanimous vote. Mexico has already been a key part of OPEC+ and central part of former OPEC agreements and production cuts.
The transition period for procedural matters will extend until January 2020. However, from this day on Mexico will partake in any and all agreements and will hold a vote in substantive matters within the organization.
OPEC declares itself excited to welcome this new member into the organization and looks forward to Mexico’s fruitful contributions.

#52 THE NEW UNION: Security Council Ignores US and Saudi Arabian Trade Embargo on Iran

As the Security Council just noticed, it has been completely ignoring the issue of the US-Saudi trade embargo just imposed on the Islamic Republic of Iran, as a result of the Houthi rebel attacks on Saudi oil fields, a strike the States and Saudi Arabia believe was aided and maybe even coordinated by Iran. How the delegates in the council didn’t notice this development, especially the Iranian delegate, remains a mystery. Maybe, instead of focusing so much on details within draft resolutions, the countries should rather stay tuned to the press releases, posted by the minute.
– Shen Lingxen

#51 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Gabon, USA and France Stand Up for the Future

With the pending deal between Russia and China for the creation of a new international pipeline, multiple nations have objected on the grounds that the committee is focused on reducing subsidies on fossil fuel projects, yet here they stand, justifying an attempt to expedite the fossil fuel trade that is destroying our planet. The Intercontinental Standard salutes you, defenders of the future.
– Elizabeth O’Sullivan


An anonymous high ranking source within the Saudi Investigation of the Saudi Arabian Oil Field has leaked irrefutable video evidence to the Intercontinental Standard showing Iran to be without a doubt heavily involved in the attacks. We shall leave it up to our readers to speculate why and how.

#49 THE NEW UNION: A Broken Remit

A paper has emerged within the IMF that contains absolutely 0 financial clauses. Is it the incompetency of the UN in general, with its economists who only believe in liberal economics? Or is it simply that no one in the UN can agree on absolutely any concrete measures? We leave that decision to you, dear readers, but who knows, the incompetent IMF may manage to find the slightest element of financial common ground.
– Nadya Nikolayevna

#48 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: A Rising Star From a Fallen Nation

A new gossip newspaper, The MUN, has become an international hit after publishing salacious pictures of Kim Jong Un posing on the beach. The North Korean people absolutely adored this publication, before it was promptly banned from North Korea, but now is a player in the international media. If anyone has any rumours or confessions to make, inform the press reporter in your committee and you too could have your story in an international gossip newspaper.
– Elizabeth O’Sullivan

#47 OFFICIAL UPDATE: UAE moves two corvettes off the coast of Kuwait

The UAE moves two corvettes 30 kilometres off the coast of Kuwait until further notice in order to assure safe measures are taken following the escalation of Kuwaiti Iraqi conflict

#46 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Security Council Calms Down, Refocuses on Kurdish Question

After the last two hours, full of accusations, war threats and silencing of the press, the Security Council has calmed down nearing the coffee break at 4pm. The last hour is being used to discuss the two main draft resolutions on the floor right now which both still need a lot of editing in this journalist’s humble opinion. However, while this boring procedure is taking place, I have met a press representative from a new gossip-based newspaper, called “The MUN”. If anyone has any rumours or confessions to make, inform this reporter and you too could have your story in an international gossip newspaper.
Andrew Turner, reporting for the Intercontinental Standard.

#45 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Iranian Economy spirals following US Saudi Embargo

The US Saudi Trade Embargo leads to major credit rating downgrade of Iran from CCC to CC. The Republic of Iran’s budget is now reduced from $1,640 billion to $1400 billion Budget sheet is updated accordingly

#44 THE NEW UNION: Security Council Moves Away from Kurdish Question, Instead Focuses on Iraq-Kuwait Crisis

In response to the acute crisis evolving between Iraq and Kuwait, the Security Council was quick to halt discussions on the Kurdish question and instead chose to focus – at least for now – on these new developments in the Middle East. There was even a working paper handed in responding to the new situation. This rather quick reaction was only tainted by an annoying journalist from America, accusing some countries of trying to silence the press, a practice Andrew Turner’s beloved president Donald Trump seems to be very keen of himself. This, however, didn’t keep the SC from getting its job done and adopting a statement addressing the demands from Kuwait. This swift action shows that the UN does indeed work and does so thanks to countries like China and Cote d’Ivoire, contrary to the belief of the imperialist, western “Intercontinental Standard”.
Remember people, The New Union is the only real source of the truth!
– Shen Lingxen

#43 THE NEW UNION: OPEC – Cartel of Crooks

Tonight OPEC has truly shown the world it’s true colours and the true reason for its existence – it is little more than a council of corrupt businessmen trying to strangle the world economy and extort millions of regular people like you and I just to grow their already mountainous piles of gold. The proposed increase to 80$ a barrel of oil would cause companies across the world to hike up the prices of their products in order to compensate and who would end up paying for this? WE, the average hard-working citizen, would.
Once again the 1%, (most of whom have been set up as corrupt dictators by western powers for their own commercial interests) are trying to screw the little guy but this time brothers we have had enough. At some point, we must take up arms and say NO! to these selfish men who seek to profit off the blood of mother nature while she dies all around us.
The fact that the bill OPEC seems set to pass fails to mention the 99.9% of the world it’s expanded oil production, artificial price hikes and environmental degradation will so greatly and so dismally effect speaks volumes about whose interests they represent. They, much like the oil they love so much, are relics of the past and need to be shut down.
– Mohammed Abbas Salim

#42 THE NEW UNION: Bureaucracy and Boredom

The IMF continues to waste an incredible amount of time, running through sovereignty speeches on the general speakers’ list, simply grandstanding about how much they value sovereignty. With a resolution on the floor, and a loan application pending, why do we put Andy faith into this time-wasting organisation?
– Nadya Nikolayevna

#41 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Security Council condemns Kuwait Action

Security Council,

1.We condemn the Kuwaiti demand for war reparation of Iraq;

2.With the principle of peace and stability in mind, the states should focus on peaceful reconciliation;

3.We believe Kuwaiti demand for money will gravely impact the Iraqi economy, and will lead to financial misery not just amongst the Kurds, but the Iraqis present in the region as well;

4.Concerned that these Kuwaiti demands set a precedent for extortion, if this situation develops further it will be referred to this council for further substantive action

5.We all urge countries to work together to find a peaceful solution


The USA gives a passionate speech about Sovereignty. What a joke.
The United States of America has made a passionate and eloquent speech to the IMF in response to Equitorial Guineas claim that sovereignty is not inviolable. Nothing could have been more hypocritical. The ‘world police’ saying that each has a right to their own destiny when the US routinely bombs other nations, forces in favourable governments to smaller nations and starting wars in foreign countries to hunt down rogue elements. The USA has NO RIGHT to stand in front of the UN and say it cares about the ‘sovereign equality of nations.’ It would be like a criminal being a judge, it simply does not make sense. The USA is the worlds primary interventionist. Iraq. Libya. Afghanistan. Vietnam. Korea. And even then the list of countries where the US has intervened is nowhere near as long as the list of deaths caused in the protection of their ‘interests’. This hypocrisy demonstrates what the UN has always been to the USA. A toy to play with when they want to.
– Nadya Nikolayevna

#39 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: UN Embarrasses Itself by Attacking Press Instead of Focusing on Issues at Hand

While the delegations in the Security Council have been debating details regarding the request for war reparations by Kuwait to Iraq, there have been explosive developments, namely in the form of Iraq evacuating its troops from Kuwait. And what does the “Security” Council do in response to that? They accuse the press of unnecessarily inflaming the situation. Instead of actually taking care of the situation and finding a solution for the evolving crisis, they completely embarrass themselves by attacking free speech. This is a low point, even for the United Nations. Especially the delegates from China and Cote d’Ivoire choose to focus rather on some words in a newspaper, while a war is building up in the Middle East. This is a show of utter cowardice, completely ignoring the mandate of the body and instead opting for silencing journalists, a method they are probably used to from their own countries.
I will keep you posted (should I be allowed to stay in the room, anything is possible at this point…).
Andrew Turner, reporting for the Intercontinental Standard

#38 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Iraq not willing to pay Kuwait War reparations and takes back pipeline

The Republic of Iraq refutes that there is any basis to the claims of Kuwait. And hence are not willing to pay any reparations. This has escalated into Iraq revoking Kuwait’s funding of the Iraq-Kuwait pipeline in addition to moving troops to the boarder with the aim of seizing control of the project.

#37 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Saudi Arabia US impose Trade Embargo on Iran

Both Saudi Arabia and the United States condemn the act by Houthi Rebels and will react by imposing a complete trading embargo on Iran these countries believe it is clear that Iran is the underlining force supporting this attack.
The United States of America furthermore, calls to all their allies to follow this example asking to implement similar sanctions against Iran.


In a shocking new development, The Intercontinental Standard just got word from an anonymous source, that Iraq is apparently silently evacuating its diplomats from their embassy in Kuwait City! This move, closely resembling the United States’ evacuation effort in Saigon in 1975, most definitely indicates an escalation of the conflict between Iraq and Kuwait.
I will keep you posted on further developments, happening by the minute!
Remember folks, you heard it here first.
– Andrew Turner, reporting for the Intercontinental Standard.

#35 THE NEW UNION: African Countries Reshaping the Continent’s Economy

During one of the informal sessions in the UN Security Council, I managed to pick up on a conversation between Nigeria, Libya, Angola and Equatorial Guinea, discussing how to “reboot Africa”. The main idea seems to be to diversify the heavily oil-dependent economies in Africa by collaboration amongst themselves. This could have huge consequences worldwide, since boosting African economies could potentially drive petroleum demand, following the example by the rise in petroleum demand from India.
I will try to keep you posted on this development!
Shen Lingxen, reporting for The New Union.

#34 THE NEW UNION: A UN Negotiator for the Kurdish Question

Following the much-needed coffee break, the Security Council reconvened to find itself facing a representative of the Kurdish people, brought in to answer any questions the delegates had regarding the Kurdish question. After a couple of actual questions and some hidden attacks, mainly by the United States and of course Turkey, the delegate from China suggested installing a UN negotiator for solving the question of the Kurdish people. This idea was immediately supported by many African countries, including Cote d’Ivoire and Nigeria, showing the world that China’s close relationship to the African continent is not mainly of economic nature, but also fueled by ideological similarities.
In the meantime, the delegate from Belgium seems to have forgotten its own controversial past, claiming that Russia can’t be trusted due to it formerly being part of the Soviet Union. Still, Peru’s response, saying that calling Russia the Soviet Union is like calling Germany the Third Reich, is quite daring.
Shen Lingxin, reporting for The New Union

This article got updated. In a previous version, the South African delegate was accussed of racism. The New Union would like to apologise for the mistake.

#33 THE NEW UNION: Iran Issues Statement on Houthi Rebel Attack on Saudi Arabian Oil Field

In an exclusive interview with the delegate of Iran, the representative condemned the attack on Saudi Arabian Oil Berri Field by the Houthi rebels, calling it a clear infringement on the country’s territorial integrity and sovereignty. The Islamic Republic furthermore wanted to stress, that it is in no way connected to or even responsible for these developments, as is often suggested by western imperialist countries like the United States. Lastly, Iran calls for de-escalation of the conflict and supports a resolution through peaceful means.
Stay tuned for more inside scoops!
– Shen Lingxin

#32 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: The Ambassador of Qatar Speaks at OPEC

Speaking this afternoon the representative of Qatar expressed an interest in reconciliation between the council and Doha. However, the past cannot easily be forgotten or forgiven. The representative lambasted the council for being weak-willed and cowering before the demands of Riyadh, a notion that no doubt leaves an especially sour taste in Tehran; who stayed suspiciously quiet.
Saudi Arabia fighting back accused the representative of hurling insults, sowing division and supporting international terrorism – hypocritical and defensive words if this reporter has ever heard them. With the Saudi domestic situation worsening and its control over OPEC loosening one is left to wonder how Saudi Arabia will endeavour to stabilise its position before it further spirals out of control.
As the meeting descended into childish bickering between the two former allies, the discussion was soon ended and the meeting adjourned. For now at least, it seems far from Qatar rejoining OPEC the wounds that led to its secession are once again ripped open anew.
Marie Emile reporting for the Intercontinental Standard

#31 THE NEW UNION: Iranian Loan survives a rejection vote, counter-proposals suggested

The Iranian Loan survives a vote to reject it with a single vote to spare in a 5/6 vote. However, the counter-proposal suggested by France and its allies is an insult. They want to reduce the loan to 2/3 of the previous amount, while also more than doubling the interest rate to a whopping 18%. The West may have allowed Iran its loan, but this is more of a punitive measure than anything else, and with the rumors surrounding sanctions, this loan would seem idiotic to take. The IMF is simply trying to extort Iran as much as possible rather than helping them to develop their economy. Classic.
– Nadya Nikolayevna

#30 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Explosive Scoops Once Again

An anonymous source within the US Government shared huge news with the International Standard in an exclusive insider interview. There seems to be interest in significant extension in the sanctions against Iran as they ‘continue to fund and facilitate the scourge of terrorism in the Middle East’. They intend to target the Iranian Petrochemical industry, as well as imposing their own trade restrictions on Iran and asking allies to join this trade embargo.
Furthermore, a huge weapons deal between the US and Saudi Arabia is currently being brokered in the interests of protecting Saudi Arabia against the Iranian funded Houthi terrorists.
The US once again shows itself to be the guiding light of the world, protecting the Middle East and the rest of the world from Iran’s terrorist influences.
Elizabeth O’Sullivan, signing off


Today the OPEC council has seemingly come together as one to send their support to Saudi Arabia during these troubling times. The representative of the United Arab Emirates, in particular, denounced the vicious attacks and demanded an immediate investigation however old divisions quickly flared and it wasn’t long until old rivals were soon hurling accusations at each other. The representative of Iran showed a suspicious willingness to aid their rival, combined with the news that OPEC’s membership composition may soon be changing has led some to privately question whether Iranian funding was behind the attacks and whether Iran should, as a result, be ejected from the council.
– Marie Emile

#28 THE NEW UNION: Iran Applies for Loan to Develop Petrochemical Industry

Iran wants a loan from the IMF to ‘counter US financial terrorism’ to develop its petrochemical industry, in pursuance of the aims mentioned in our previous article here. They are offering a for-profit loan to repay over 15 years, meaning that the IMF would actually profit from this loan itself, as well as pursuing its aims of assisting an Iran in the diversification of its economy. On paper, this loan is nothing but a benefit to the IMF, but will the Western Biased IMF allow this application? The USA has already accused Iran of potentially siphoning off some of this money to fund Houthi rebels in Yemen. Saudi Arabia has come forward also to say that the loan should be conditional upon the cessation of all international operations, specifically supporting their own people in Yemen. If the IMF sticks to its principles and aims, then this loan would be granted. But the US bias in the IMF will likely mean they provide an insulting counter offer, turning Iran into the arms of its fellow Middle Eastern nations such as Kuwait, who has offered to provide some of the funding for this. The IMF, as with the UN in general, says it cares about the development of all nations, but only cares about Western allies.
– Nadya Nikolayevna


After several years, the State of Kuwait has decided to call in the debt of war reparation to the sum of $4.6 billion against Iraq. While Iraq lacks the funds to pay off the debt, the USA and Russia have decided to provide a dollar-denominated relief package to the sum, this money will go towards investments in the Kurdish region. If Iraq does disagree with the procedure, all government income will have to be diverted towards paying off the debt, which could take years and destabilize the region of Kurdistan in the long run. The three aforementioned parties wait for a reply from the Republic of Iraq and extend the deadline till 1 pm.11:06Details: 1 billion will be paid upfront (50% each country) and a 5% of profits untill the inflation adjusted debt is paid off

#26 THE INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Things Are Getting Interesting at the UNSC!

The atmosphere at the Security Council is heating up while the delegates have been discussing the working papers more thoroughly. Iran, apparently having suffered from a severe case of amnesia regarding their inhumane treatment of political prisoners in hellholes like the notorious Evin prison, criticized the lack of humanitarian aid efforts in some of the working papers. In a similar fashion, the delegate from Venezuela seems to have completely lost his mind. Accusing the United States of perpetrating invasions and imperialist wars in South East Asia and the Middle East and even calling President Trump’s generous humanitarian efforts in Venezuela an infringement on the socialist country’s sovereignty, he claimed there would be no peace for the Kurds, as long as America was involved in the region. Thankfully, the Chair allowed the US to respond to these ridiculous attacks, thereby immediately disclaiming the statement.
Aside from this verbal slugfest, there have also been some substantial discussions going on, especially driven by Belgium, Cote d’Ivoire and Equatorial Guinea. Russia, which has been keeping a low profile, at least during the discussions, has been repeatedly offering to hold a conference on the Kurdish question in Moscow, as has been done before, a fact the delegate makes sure he mentions in every one of his speeches.
We will keep you posted on further developments.
Andrew Turner, reporting for the Intercontinental Standard.

#25 THE NEW UNION: China Lambasts a Potential Bracket System for the Allocation of Funding (IMF)

The Peoples Republic of China has slammed proposals by the delegation of Angola, proposing to limit how much money a nation may be allocated from the IMF depending on a multitude of economic factors. China has highlighted that this would, in fact, inhibit growth to weak and growing economies, as it is giving them a guarantee of financial aid to support their economy if they stay within a certain threshold, encouraging them to attempt to stick to the threshold itself instead of pushing into the next bracket, losing out on their potential aid. France has even gone so far to state that this clause should consider fossil fuel usage and commitment to green energy. This is the UN once again punishing developing nations for simply not having the money to invest in greener methods of energy generation. The IMF is supposed to encourage and support developing nations, rather than punishing them for not being able to invest in green energy and seeming to promote the capping of the growth of nations.
– Nadya Nikolayevna

#24 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Following Attack on Oil Fields Saudi Economy Suffers

Saudi Arabia’s credit rating has been downgraded from A- to BBB+ additionally their budget has been lowered to 220 billion $USD

#23 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Saudi Arabia enraged at Qatar, threatens Sanction

Official Statement by the Saudi Delegation: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is intent on imposing significant economic sanctions onto Qatar and any country that supports their efforts if they do not immediately stop pursuing the goal of joining OPEC. These sanctions include sanctions on air travel, shipping and financials. Furthermore we threaten to drive down our oil PRICES worldwide. Additionally, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait strongly urge all other OPEC countries to take a strong stance against Qatars goals and deny them entry to OPEC.

#22 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Yemeni Rebels Attack Saudi Oil Fields

Yemeni Huti rebels have now invaded the Saudi Arabian Oil Berri Field in the West of the country, as consequence, this will disrupt 15% of Saudi Oil Exports which will undoubtedly force the Saudi Government to increase its oil prices

#21 OFFICIAL UPDATE: IMF Approves $655 million US contribution to Kuwait-Iraq pipeline

Following the Kuwait Iraqi Pipeline Project where Kuwait has recently agreed to contribute 80% the US has also agreed to fund a major fraction of the pipeline by contributing 15% of the project, an equivalent of $655 million. Despite some initial opposition by IMF countries who wanted to block American funding capacity this has now passed

#20 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Joint Petroleum Venture between Iran, Iraq to assist Kurdish Regions

Iraq and Iran are furthering internal developments of the Kurds in their respective countries via a Joint petroleum venture where the two states will share their best practices, regarding the extraction of crude petroleum in these monotonous regions and give each other technical assistance regarding the extraction, refining and trade of petroleum oil. The profits of this petroleum trade will be used to invest in infrastructure, healthcare and education in the Kurdish region of the respective country.

#19 OFFICIAL UPDATE:  October 27th: SDR conversion rate

SDR conversion rate for 26/10: 1.376087To convert your SDR (budget) into USD, please multiply your SDR by the number above.

#18 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Coffee breaks tomorrow

Dear Delegates and Chairs,


We hope you have enjoyed your first afternoon of debate. Tomorrow’s coffee breaks will be at 11:00-11:30 (morning) and 16:00-16:45 (afternoon). These are a chance for you meet with the other delegates representing your country and discuss your policy. As you have now been in contact with each other on slack and met each other in person, delegates are responsible for organising the location of their own country delegations.  

You need to have organised your morning location by 10:15 and your afternoon location by 14:15.

IF YOU ARE THE ONLY DELEGATE REPRESENTING YOUR COUNTRY consider which countries you wish to contract multilateral/bilateral deals with and message the concerned countries on slack by searching their country name on the workspace to then organise logistics for the coffee break. 



Directorial Board Team

#17 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Saudi Arabia aids Iraq to cut ties with Qatar

Saudi Arabia will pay 5% of the pipeline cost allowing to put an end to the Iraq-Qatar gas trade, with an attempt from Saudi Arabia to free Iraq from the influence of a terrorist supporting group.

#16 THE NEW UNION: China Steps Up, While US Embarrasses Itself

The one constant of the IMF‘s first day of debates has so far been the importance of economic cooperation. While many delegates have been stressing this, one nation stands out as the most committed to the cause: The People‘s Republic of China. By on the one hand making countless suggestions on how to take on the issue of rethinking global fossil fuel subsidies and putting a price on carbon and on the other hands responding to questions regarding these suggestions, raised for example by the United Arab Emirates and the State of Kuwait, China has shown its preparedness to take on a leading role in solving the climate change crisis. In the meantime, the United States has been focusing on national policies, completely neglecting the crucial role coordinated, global efforts will have to play in solving this problem facing every single nation on earth. By doing that, the US has once again shown, that its time as the so-called leader of the free world has been over for a long time! Underneath these crumbling ruins of America‘s forgotten hegemony, a new world leader arises: China.
– Shen Lingxin

#15 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Exclusive Information from Saudi Government on the Pipeline!

Saudi Arabia has informed the Intercontinental Standard that it will subsidise 5% of the so-called Saik Pipe (name competition ongoing). They state that this is to free Kuwait from the influence of the Terror supporting nation Qatar. Strong words from the Saudi Government, adamant of Qatari guilt, Saudi is seeming to be moving against Qatar wherever possible, and this seems to validate many of the comments made recently by Ecuador and others within OPEC.
20% off Intercontinental Standard subscription for students! Click here to subscribe!
Elizabeth O’Sullivan, signing off

#14 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: UNSC – The United States of America fails to show!

Tonight shocking news is coming out of the Security Council as it has become apparent that the United States of America has failed to even send a delegate to discuss the Kurdish Question. This complete and utter abdication of responsibility shows it to be a world leader acting far beyond the immense powers it selfishly hoarded post world war 2. It is time the people of the world hear what the USA has said so clearly tonight – that they are no longer interested in the affairs of the world and so we should no longer be interested in their opinion. As the Russian delegate so correctly pointed out, they have successfully filled the sudden vacuum created by the irresponsible and inexplicable rapid US withdrawal. Likewise, the delegate of Turkey has been coordinating with the delegates of Syria and Russia to ensure the beginnings of a framework of a sustainable peace are being built. While the Turkish delegate’s rhetoric regarding the Kurdish plight calls for alarm it is to be expected and mirrors the predictable and empty platitudes echoed by many of the countries’ representatives tonight. In a Security Council dominated by Russia, China, Turkey and others the French citizens are left to wonder if this great Western institution has fallen? And if so then how long until the Anti-Western Bloc comes for our other treasured institutions? How long until they come after the IMF, the World Bank or the EU? Now is the time for western leaders and representatives in all institutions and worldwide to finally summon the courage within themselves and let the world hear our roar once again!
– Marie Émile


US Sanctions failing to stop Iran. Iran has recently told the New Union that it is not deterred by these sanctions. They may not be able to export the crude itself, they will invest undefined amounts of capital into refinement and processing of Crude Oil to attempt to sell these products instead of the crude itself, avoiding the sanctions. How useless these sanctions are, that instead of simply damaging the economy as a deterrent, it instead encourages Iran to diversify its economy, saving the planet by exploring other resources and protecting the planet. The ingenuity of the people of Iran has defeated the so-called Western elites. How tragic that they are unable to simply solve the problem, and decide that imposing their will on others is more effective than cooperating with Iran. The promise to prevent Iranian Nuclearisation, like all promises from the UN, are hollow and worthless, manifesting a benefit to Iran rather than a detriment.
– Nadya Nikolayevna

#12 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Another Electrifying Scoop

Another scoop from the International Standard: Iran, UAE and Nigeria are cooperating to build a massive generation facility in the Gulf Sea. Supposedly it will be a dual generational facility, with a giant solar farm on the Sea Surface, with a large tidal facility underwater. A win for the environment, with a huge new source of green energy, but also speculation arises around how Nigeria will access this energy, or what they get out of this exchange if they can’t access it. How will the project be funded? Will it be possible to make this comply with UNCLOS? Is this a counter move to the creation of the new Pipeline of Arabia (One of many names in our competition, see our last scoop article HERE for details)
More scoops coming soon.
Elizabeth O’Sullivan, signing off.

#11 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Inside Scoop – Piping Hot Developments

The Kuwaiti-Iraqi Pipeline has been an international sensation and has dominated discussions at a recent world summit. Russia and Poland have supposedly sponsored the pipeline, with Kuwait, Russia and Poland paying 80%, 15% and 5% respectively. Furthermore, plans are being drawn up to extend the pipeline into Saudi Arabia, creating a huge, international pipeline to promote international trade and cooperation, with the express aim of ‘avoiding the volatile region of Kurdistan.’ This pipeline is beginning to raise lots of questions in the political sphere. Is Russia attempting to muscle in on the US’ Sphere of Influence? What will Saudi Arabia supply as consideration for this extension of the pipeline? Will the Silk Road be replaced as the most famous trade route? WHAT SHOULD WE NAME THIS NEW PIPELINE?!? Submit your name in the comments below and whoever wins will win a free lifetime subscription to the International Standard.
And remember folks, you heard it here first!
Elizabeth O’Sullivan, signing off

#10 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: Climate change fearmongering once again hinders fact-driven debate

It has been a day full of low-energy speeches and unconvincing arguments at the International Monetary Fund, discussing a reform of global fossil fuel subsidies and putting a price on carbon. In one of the few exciting moments so far, the French delegate criticized all countries still relying on fossil fuels to energize their economy for ignoring “scientific studies” and at the same time not caring about the working-class people in their society, which, as the delegate claimed, suffered the most from the effects of climate change. This ridiculous attack perfectly displays the left-wing panic-machine taking over debates at the United Nations, not at all focusing on facts and statistics but rather playing into people’s fears and emotions. Thankfully, the Honorable Delegate from the United States was there to correct his French colleague on her mistake, laying out how utterly laughable it is to expect from countries, which have been relying on the role fossil fuels play in their economy for decades, to suddenly switch to renewable energies, which aren’t nearly as reliable and efficient. Adding to that, he rightfully refused to let governments and corporations be accused of being responsible for people’s misfortune in life. After all, everybody gets the same opportunities, some people just use them better than others. While it was alarming to see a lot of delegates agreeing with France on her outrageous claims, it was reassuring to see that the United States are still the leader of the free world and apparently also the last bastion of common sense.
– Andrew Turner

#9 THE NEW UNION: Western Imperialism – A Dog with No Brain (UNSC)

My friends, does it come to any surprise to any of us that the western countries today showed not only their usual level of bone-headedness but continued their recent pattern of cowardice? Instead of openly pursuing the policy points they lack the spine to say out loud they instead have their neo-vassalage states spread throughout the western hemisphere espout utter nonsense. Belgium speaks of establishing peace but it knows nothing of the struggle on the ground! It speaks from lofty towers of ivory sitting upon comfy thrones of silk made through the blood and sweat of generations of oppressed Congolese. These westerners cannot possibly fathom the courage and the tenacity shown daily by those Muslim souls in Kurdistan brave enough to stand up for their right as a people to live united and sovereign under god. Accolades must be given to the western delegates for somehow keeping a straight face, speaking of the importance of promoting freedoms of choice while the very foundations of the liberties they force upon others are built from centuries of global subjugation. They profess a desire to ‘open the Kurdish markets up to investment’ but this is little more than a malicious desire to create wage-slaves of the proudly independent Kurdish culture – the West has learnt the strength the rest of the world possesses and so they force their will through economic rather than overtly political tools. We must remain wary though! We must not fall for the cheese the French so lazily offer up and instead remain a steadfast devotion to patience, piety and perseverance – progressing our civilisation as we see fit and not bending the knee to peoples who have shown us nothing but patronising contempt in the past. Truly, the leaders of the West now show such little respect for this issue that they send not the creme of the crop but this sorry lot to debate this issue so clear to the very beating heart of Islam itself. With delegates talking about efforts to ‘green-ify’ the Kurdish economy while thousands die fighting for country and god it can only be said that the West thinks little more of our struggle than a joke. Western disrespect and insensitivity towards Islamic issues? Come this as any surprise to those of who have been on the end of ‘American benevolence’ for decades now?
– Mohammed Abbas Salim

#8 Single-Member Delegation Blocs

If you are from a single-delegate country, you can discuss forming blocs with other single-delegate countries and publish position papers together.



Many nations within OPEC have expressed interest in reinviting Qatar on the premise of them having ‘suspended voting rights.’ This would entail a groundbreaking development in the Qatar Crisis, welcoming them back to participate in their discussions but not being able to vote on substantive matters until the committee deems them worthy. However, founding member Saudi Arabia maintains a Veto over any decision within OPEC and may exercise it to maintain the embargo that they maintain over Qatar. While this would be within the interests of the OPEC Statute, Saudi Arabia may be determined to exclude them from the committee, as they ‘maintain substantially different interests compared to that of OPEC, namely natural gas’, justifying their blockade using article 7D of the OPEC Statute. It would also be a huge political move, as OPEC would be expanding their own constitution without the consent of the General Assembly itself, raising the question of moderation. If OPEC is able to expand its own powers in such magnitude, then who is ensuring that OPEC is acting within the interests of its creators, and for the purpose it was created or is it being self-serving, expanding its own powers to benefit its member states? Who watches the watchers? Will the GA intervene with this unprecedented assertion of political strength?
Subscribe to the Intercontinental Standard to find out more as the story develops.
– Elizabeth O’Sullivan

#6 INTERCONTINENTAL STANDARD: United Nations Security Council: Ignorance Rules the Day

A lively debate erupted in the United Nations Security Council this afternoon as representatives of the world grappled over the Kurdish Question. This issue, as important for the European Union as Syria was a near-decade ago, has so far sadly seen a distinct lack of courage and leadership from our European brethren. Have the lessons learnt from the Syrian Refugee Crisis and the immense pressures it put our precious union under fallen on deaf ears in Berlin and Stockholm? Or do they simply lack the backbone to swallow their pride and do what must be done to protect Europe? It is a sad day indeed when the genocide of an entire people is being discussed and yet European Liberalism fails to muster even a bark of protest to the bombastic totalitarian vile spewing forth from far too many mouthes around the table. Perhaps now it is clear for you all to see just how far has Merkel betrayed the values Europe was founded upon. Sadly, ignorance plagued not merely the European Union Countries but seemed endemic throughout the committee. The Turkish delegate, in particular, seemed unsure of his country’s position – one moment arguing in favour of full Kurdish autonomy and in another defending his country’s right to illegally invade Syria to ‘defeat Kurdish terrorists’; perhaps this perplexing inconsistency merely reflects the utter lack of leadership and moral fibre we have come to expect from Erdogan and his government. A moment amusing closer to home for many of our readership shall be when the delegate of the United Kingdom suggested that what was of prime importance was the ignoring of the issue of sovereignty in favour of focusing on the wellbeing of the people. I’m sure many peers of the House of Commons shall be ecstatic to hear of the government’s new Brexit policy platform! Though I think I speak for many in France when I say we simply ‘la flemme’ at this point and wish the British would hurry up and bugger off already. Today has once again been another page in the long and sad history of a declining international order – the ages of decency and common sense are behind us and a new dark age has begun. In this age will the European Union resign itself to the dustbin of history? – A failed project from a continent slowly sliding into irrelevance? Or will we recognise the challenges ahead of us, will we with vigour and courage take up the mantle of justice and arm ourselves appropriately so that Europe may once again shine like the beacon of freedom it once was and lead the world back to righteousness?!
– Marie Émile

#5 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Extending your country Budget

Dear delegates,
If you would like to increase your fiscal resources to spend on directives, you can apply for individual country loans at the IMF using the following link This will be processed by the IMF who will respond to your request.

#4 THE NEW UNION: Ecuador in OPEC Highlighting Hyprocrisy

Ecuador has risen in OPEC to point out to all of the Pro-Saudi nations that they have been shown over multiple decades to have financed Al Queda and other terrorist groups, as well as being linked to the infamous 9/11 attacks. Many members of OPEC demand Qatar remains excluded from OPEC and stays under sanctions because there have been allegations made by Saudi Arabia, who is ‘leading a blockade against Qatar’, supposedly having been compelled to leave by Saudi Arabia. Its an average day at the UN only applying it’s sanctions and ethics to those who are not stalwart allies of the West. So much for the principle of ‘sovereign equality’ when only the sovereignty of pro-Western nations is respected.
– Nadya Nikolayevna

#3 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Kuwait endorses Iraqi Sovereignty by supporting Gas Pipeline between the two states

Bilateral Agreement between Iraq and Kuwait

The State of Kuwait makes a public declaration of support toward’s maintaining Iraq’s national sovereignty and guarantees  80% funding of the gas pipeline between Iraq and Kuwait, with expectations to build more pipelines. The agreement also acts as a public declaration of the Republic of Iraq’s respect for the State of Kuwait’s perpetual sovereignty.

#2 OFFICIAL UPDATE: Coffee Break @5PM

All Delegates in UNSC, OPEC and IMF you will have a Coffee Break at Balliol College. You will be meeting in the Massey room please bring your Placards with you so you can identify your other country representatives. By the end of this Break do submit to the DB who your Head Delegate is by messaging Bianca_DB, you can submit a Policy Paper to Bianca_DB as well.

If you are the only delegate representing your contry you have final authority to decide deals for your country and can join talks for whatever country you see fit.


Dear Delegates and Chairs,


This page is where all Interconnectivity Updates will be posted during the conference.

We will NOT be using the #general channel on slack as was previously communicated.

If it is labelled “Official Update” that means it is a post coming from DB. If it’s labelled “International Standard” or “New Union” that means it’s reporting by the respective news organisation.

Here is a link to all Slack Codes

Here is a link to the Country Budget

Here is a link to the Rules of Procedure

Calculating Budget: The SDR currency value at OxIMUN has been set to 1.38. Simply multiply your SDR figure by 1.38 to get your budget in US Dollars 

COUNTRY MEETINGS: Today there will be no coffee breaks. If you wish to organize a Country meeting follow the procedure of the Slack Codes below (via Private Delegation Meeting). Overall please do note meetings will only be organized in special circumstances as they require logistical organization.



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